@article{Mustafa_2020, title={VIGOROUS 3D ANGULAR RESECTION MODEL USING LEVENBERG – MARQUARDT METHOD}, volume={1}, url={https://sgej.org/index.php/sgej/article/view/3}, DOI={10.38094/sgej113}, abstractNote={<p>The resection in 3D space is a common problem in surveying engineering and photogrammetry based on observed distances, angles, and coordinates. This resection problem is nonlinear and comprises redundant observations which is normally solved using the least-squares method in an iterative approach. In this paper, we introduce a vigorous angular based resection method that converges to the global minimum even with very challenging starting values of the unknowns. The method is based on deriving oblique angles from the measured horizontal and vertical angles by solving spherical triangles. The derived oblique angles tightly connected the rays enclosed between the resection point and the reference points. Both techniques of the nonlinear least square adjustment either using the Gauss-Newton or Levenberg – Marquardt are applied in two 3D resection experiments. In both numerical methods, the results converged steadily to the global minimum using the proposed angular resection even with improper starting values. However, applying the Levenberg – Marquardt method proved to reach the global minimum solution in all the challenging situations and outperformed the Gauss-Newton method.</p>}, number={1}, journal={Surveying and Geospatial Engineering Journal}, author={Mustafa, Yaseen}, year={2020}, month={Dec.}, pages={08 - 13} }